Immigration Dept: Analogue losers in a digital government

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Upon getting elected, President Uhuru Kenyatta promised to bring “digital government” to Kenya. A key part of his ambition is to bring service delivery by the national government online, eliminating paper trails, and endless queues at government offices. The bigger vision is to use modern technology wherever possible to improve efficiency and expediency in all branches of the public sector.

The Immigration Department, while already reformed to some extent, could certainly do with some further radical shake-up.

My now 10 weeks old daughter, Sunniva, is yet to get her passport. As Beatrice and I plan to travel to Zanzibar for Christmas, Sunniva needs to get a Temporary Permit that will allow her to travel within the East African Community.

While I was on a quick trip abroad, Beatrice therefore went to the Immigration Dept at Nyayo House to apply for the Temporary Permit. Their response was that they no longer had the relevant forms, and that those were only available at the Immigration Office at the JKIA airport. To be on the safe side, she checked with two people, to ensure she was not being misled. Both gave the same response.

Rather weird, since Nyayo House is home to the Immigration Dept Headquarters. Trying to make sense out of Kenyan government procedures is often futile, though.

As I was heading home the morning after, we agreed that I would pick up the form when passing through the airport, so upon landing, I asked a person with an Immigration Dept badge.

He first asked me if I had the baby with me – funny question, considering that we were in the arrivals unit, and that those passes are for travelling out of the country. I re-explained the situation, and he told me that they normally don’t give out those forms for people to take them with them, but that I could ask at the office.

Where is the baby?” Was the first question the gentleman behind the desk asked me when I presented my request.

I explained to him that we were not leaving the country right away, and that we simply wanted to apply in advance to be on the safe side.

– “Christmas is still far away. You have a lot of time, so no need to do this now“, he replied.

– “Sure, so if I can just get the form, then I’ll take care of the rest”.

– “I don’t even know where those forms are. Why don’t you go to Nyayo House?“.

– “As I said, they don’t have them. They were the ones who told me that I had to get them from here”.

– “Wow, I don’t think we give those ones out. Let me ask someone..

The gentleman started frantically multitasking with a multitude of issues from other people in the same office, and quickly seemed to have forgotten my request, until I reminded him.

He picked up the phone, tried calling someone, didn’t get hold of the person, went to look in a drawer, returned to the desk, and started working on something completely different.

– “Excuse me. What about that form?”

– “Oh yeah, that one. Wait, I’ll get you someone who can answer your questions“.

He got hold of a lady to whom I explained the situation again, emphasizing that we had been told at Nyayo House to apply at the airport.

– “We don’t have those forms. You have to get them at Nyayo House“.

– “OK.. As I just explained to you, we already went to Nyayo House, and they told us to get those forms here”.

– “Then you have to go back to Nyayo House and tell them that we didn’t have them“.

I could feel my anger boiling. Getting upset with a stupid person is a waste of energy, though. Especially when that person is a government official. Hence I kept my calm.

– “If I go to Nyayo House, they will just send me back here. Can we please try to solve this problem here and now?”

– “But I told you that you can only get those forms at Nyayo House. They are the Immigration HQ. We don’t deal with such issues here“.

– “They told us that such issues are no longer handled by them, and that the authority has been delegated to the Immigration Offices at the borders. Are you saying they know what they are talking about?”

– “I don’t know anything about that. We only issue temporary passes in emergency situations, like if you have to board a flight“.

– “So in those situations, you do issue temporary passes?”

– “Yes“.

– “So then you must have the forms. Can I please get one?”

– “Listen, I have already told you that we don’t handle those issues here“.

– “You just told me the opposite of that”.

I now knew that the lady in front of me was lying, although I had no idea why, so I decided I would continue pushing her until she would either give me the form, or throw me out. The lady was getting increasingly hostile, so the latter started to seem likely.

– “Go to Nyayo House!

– “I have already told you a couple of times that they told us to get the form at the airport. Now, this is a service office, isn’t it? Can you please assist me in finding out where and how I can get one of those forms”.

– “Yes, you go to Nyayo House“.

– “You are not helping me. It is my right to be served here, and I want to know where I can get that form. If you don’t have them, can you please make a phone call and find out where I can actually find one?”.

– “Sit down” she said, pointing toward a couch a few metres away. I almost started laughing at the fact that she imagined herself in a position to command me.

– “I am very comfortable standing right here, thank you”.

– “I said, SIT DOWN“.

– “How will that help me. Will you bring me the form if I sit down?”

– “No. I want you out of my way“.

– “Give me the form, or tell me where I can get one. I’ll be gone in seconds”.

– “Leave this office, now!“.

– “Give me the form, and I’ll leave”.

– “Leave, or I will have you arrested!”.

At that point, I realised that I had achieved my goal of pushing her until she either gave me the form or threw me out. Having no desire to find out whether she was actually going to have me arrested, I left.

Once home, I went to the Immigration Department homepage, www.immigration.go.ke, to see what information was available. Surprise, surprise: The precious form that noone wanted to give out, was available online!

In the old days, statements like “we don’t have that form” used to be a candid request for a bribe. Today, those practices have become dangerous to the point that low-level officials shun them. Reluctance to assist is more of a display of sheer unwillingness by grumpy, low-level bureaucrats who still don’t feel like helping anyone without the extra incentives that they no longer dare ask for, or take.  Add to that the fact that some offices have cooked up their own “policies” of only giving out certain documents at their own discretion, and you have a recipe for the kind of situations that I experieced this morning.

In any case, who needs grumpy, analogue losers, when all it takes to bypass them, is to open a web site? :D

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Al-Andalus and September 11th

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Al-Andalus, Al Qaeda, and the historic symbolism of September 11th

Alhambra: Generalife Palace

Granada, Spain. The Generalife Palace in Alhambra

It has been 12 years since the tragic events of September 11th 2001. By striking at the heart of one of the greatest cities of modern Western civilization, Osama Bin Laden and his Al Qaeda affiliates sought not just short-term death and destruction, but also what in their beliefs would be justified as an historic avengement.

In the ideology of global jihad (holy war), acts of terror today are merely battles in a continuous war between Christianity and Islam, spanning 14 centuries. Therefore, the historic symbolism of such acts is also important. The September 11 date carries a crucial historic significance through two key occasions that defined modern Western civilization.

392 years before the attacks in 2001, two entirely unrelated events on the same day, spanning both sides of the Atlantic, were to change the course of history. This happened in two countries today know as Spain, and the United States of America.

What we today know as Spain was always a melting pot of various cultures, with Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Carthagenians, Visigoths, Moors, and others leaving their footprints on the Iberian peninsula throughout the centuries.

In the years 781 years between 711 and 1492 AD, successive dynasties of Muslim Moorish rule left a legacy that includes several of Spain’s World Heritage sites and main tourist attractions, such as the Alhambra, Córdoba and the Medina Azahara.

781 years is a long time in the history of any place on Earth. Until recently, though, the Islamic era of Al Andalus (the Arabic name for the Iberian peninsula) was scantily mentioned in most history books. Where referred to, it was generally limited to la Reconquista – the conquest of Moorish territories by the then newly formed Catholic Spanish kingdom.

Cordoba: Mezquita, still the biggest mosque in the Western world

Cordoba: Mezquita, still the biggest mosque in the Western world

Córdoba, today a small Spanish city of 330,000 inhabitants, is believed to have been the world’s most populous city in the 10th century. Under Islamic rule, Córdoba turned into a global centre of arts, science and technology, famed for its multi-cultural identity, with Christians, Muslims and Jews living, working and prospering together. It was a beacon of civilization, far more advanced than any other part of Europe at the time.

Granada, home to the legendary Moorish citadel Alhambra, is today a major tourist attraction in Spain. This was one of the last outposts of Islam in Southern Europe, and its fall in 1492, marked not only the rise of Spain as a Catholic kingdom after 800 years of Islamic rule, but also the beginning of the end of the vibrant cultural pluralism and inherent tolerance of Al-Andalus.

Throughout the 16th century, the oppression against Muslims and Jews grew increasingly harsh under the new Catholic monarchy. It all culminated on September 11th 1609, when a royal decree was announced across Spain, ordering the expulsion of all Jews and Moriscos (former Muslims converted by force to Christianity, often suspected of candidly practicing their old religion).

Granada - until 1492 the last Moorish outpost on the Iberian peninsula

Granada – until 1492 the last Moorish outpost on the Iberian peninsula

Over a period of 4 years, a grand project of ethnic cleansing on a scale not to be seen again in Europe until World War 2, saw more than 1 million people dispossessed, and evicted from the country that they used to call home. The impact on the Spanish society was massive: The country as a whole lost 1/8 of its population, and some regions as much as 30%. Almost forgotten in Europe today, this was one the major atrocities in the history of mankind.

The date may ring a bell, though: September 11th, 1609.

While Al-Andalus may have been left out from the history books of the Western world, the reconquest of the Iberian peninsula is a centerpiece of the ideologies of Al Qaeda and of global jihadists.  If September 11th 1609 was the starting point of one of the biggest campaigns of ethnic cleansing in history, instigated against Muslims by the new Catholic kingdom on the Iberian peninsula, then that event is probably what Osama Bin Laden, Ayman Al Zawahiri and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed had in mind when choosing September 11th as the date for the tragic attacks against another target in the Western world: New York.

Coincidentally, September 11th 1609 was also the date when Henry Hudson, as the first European ever, set his foot on the Manhattan Island, marking the beginning of the settlement that later became New York.

September 11th 1609 became a turning point in the relationship between Christianity and Islam. It marked the final extinction of what used to be a gem in the Islamic world. It also was the starting point for the beacon of Western civilization that became New York.

In the ideology of global jihad, the Western world is a monolithic alliance of crusaders, bent on destroying Islam, in the same way as many islamophobes view the entire  Muslim world as conspiring to destroy the West. From that perspective, the two events of September 11th 1609 give the date an important symbolic value, both as the beginning of a forgotten atrocity of cataclysmic proportions, and as the starting point for one of the most admired cities in the Western world.

The double historical importance of the date logically links the choice of a date to the choice of a place:  The date of September 11th connects the city that in many ways symbolizes modern Western civilization, with an event for which the avengement is a cornerstone of Al Qaeda’s ideology.

By choosing September 11th as a date, and New York as a location, Osama Bin Laden and his fellow Al Qaeda commanders may have seen a dual symbolism that would signal a new turning of the tables.

King Phillip III of Spain may have had no idea of who Henry Hudson was, and when the latter landed on Manhattan, he certainly had no idea of the ethnic cleansing on the other side of the Atlantic. The mere symbolic value of those two historic events of September 11th 1609, may nevertheless have attracted the most tragic events in New York’s history 392 years later.

 

Pictures from my trip to Spain in December 2012.

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Nigerian Police: Armed Beggars in Uniforms!

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Nigeria Police LogoNigeria is a fascinating country with a lot of potential. Despite its somehow dubious reputation, I can say a lot of positive things about the place. Not about the Nigeria Police Force, though!

One of the biggest hassles about life  in Nigeria, is the constant harassment by police officers.

In the end, the harassment is only about money: A police officer will claim that his victim has committed an offence, and, irrespective of the veracity of those claims, demand money lest he brings his prey to the police station (possibly one of the last experiences anyone would want to have on a been-there-done-that list).

Foreigners are particularly cherished as targets, due to their perceived financial strength, but no-one is really exempt.

At night, police officers in Lagos crowd the bridges, junctions and roundabouts, stopping motorists to ask for handouts. These improvised checkpoints are usually rather friendly, as the men in uniforms will simply smile and ask the driver if he or she happens to have any spare change.

A far bigger challenge occurs when a police officer enters a car: It is hardly possible to get rid of the intruder without money changing hands in such situations.

During my recent visit to Benin City, I was approached by 5 police officers asking for my “photography permit” as I was taking pictures in the city centre. I didn’t even waver, though, as I immediately realized that they were just seeking a bribe. While never letting go of the eye contact with the one apparently in charge, I remained completely defiant, resting my case that there was no such thing as a photography permit. Eventually, I turned my back on them, and walked away.

I have seen police officers seeking bribes in many countries, both in Africa and in Eastern Europe. Nigeria is in a league of its own, though.

The Kenya Police Force was also really bad once upon a time, but has improved. In today’s Kenya, cops are actually afraid to ask for money, and begging rarely occurs any more: Kenyan police officers have actually become professional, polite and hard-working – very unlikely, had you asked anyone even a few years ago. Needless to say, some cash can still make a misdemeanor go away, but Kenyan police won’t bother you unless you are actually on the wrong side of the law.

While Nigeria is moving fast ahead in many areas, their police force is still an institution in dire need of radical surgery. They could certainly learn a lesson or two from Kenya.

That people are fed up with a Police Force that is too busy robbing their fellow Nigerians to even think of protecting them, is beyond doubt. A major hit in the world of social media, is a video clip posted on Youtube, of a police officer attempting to extort a bribe from a motorist.

The video was broadcast on TV, showing the face of the Police officer, who was since fired.

The attention paid by the public to this episode is a strong indication of the extent to which Nigerians are tired of corrupt police officers. Should the Federal Government fail to clean up the police force, the naming and shaming of corrupt officers in the social media may well develop into a trend.

Small surveillance cameras are widely available, and can easily be installed at discreet locations in cars. If more Nigerians follow up the example by the person who posted that one video on YouTube, then life would suddenly become a lot harder for those armed beggars in uniforms.

It would also make life easier for anyone living in Nigeria, and for those police officers who are honest, and who suffer from the bad image that currently stains their entire institution.

Watch and enjoy the video that terminated the career of a corrupt Nigerian police officer:

 

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Fire at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport Nairobi

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The Arrivals Unit at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi, after the fire

The JKIA Arrivals Unit, after the fire

Wednesday August 7th 2013. All was set for my trip to Nairobi, my suitcases were packed, and I had set the alarm before getting a good night’s sleep.

As always, I was looking forward to being in Nairobi, so my good mood dropped abruptly when I woke up to the message that the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport was on fire. It was all over the world news. Clearly, I was not going to Nairobi anytime soon.

A couple of phone calls later, it was confirmed that all flights in and out of Nairobi were off. Passengers already in the air towards the Kenyan capital, were being diverted to Eldoret and Mombasa.

JKIA Fire response unit

JKIA, Nairobi: So they actually have a fire brigade? Where were they on August 7th?

As details of the disaster gradually emerged, it became clear that what had started as a small fire at the Simba Lounge at 04:00, had gone on for 3 hours before growing out of control. Neither the staff, nor the fire brigade brigade had been able to put it out properly, and no-one had bothered, because it was just a small fire! Arrivals and departures had gone on as normal, until the fire had unfolded into an inferno engulfing the entire Immigration and Arrivals unit. The JKIA fire brigade could then only stand by and watch, due to the utter inadequacy of their equipment, and to the fact that the water hydrants were almost empty.

Later in the day, Kenya Airways confirmed that they would fly Lagos-Nairobi the next morning. Domestic flights in Kenya had already resumed, and in the evening, a limited number of international flights were back up in the air, too. I already started dreading the state of utter chaos that JKIA was likely to be in, though.

The next morning was Eid-ul-Fitr, the Muslim celebration at the end of Ramadan, and a public holiday in Nigeria. For the first time that I have seen, the entire road from Victoria Island to the airport was not just jam-free, but almost completely clear.

The airport was equally quiet and under-crowded, but when I got to the Kenya Airways counter, something seemed wrong. That place was just too quiet. I started fearing the worst.

“I don’t if you’ve heard, but there was a fire at the..”.

“Yes, I know”, I interrupted him. “I was supposed to travel yesterday, and I was told the flight would be on today.”

“Cancelled again. We sent out e-mails to all the passengers yesterday. Didn’t you get it”.

Since I was there, at the airport, the answer was rather obvious.

At the Kenya Airways office, a few other passengers had already started gathering, while more kept arriving. Starting to fear that it was going to take a really long time before any flight between Lagos and Nairobi would be up in the air, I asked if they could get me to another airport in Kenya with another airline.

“We’ve not been given the authority to book passengers on to other airlines, sir”.

“Then call Nairobi and get the authorization!”.

The person I was talking to brought his manager from the office next door, and after a brief discussion, someone was checking the alternatives with Rwandair and Ethiopian.

While Ethiopian had flights to Addis Ababa, all the connecting flights to Mombasa were fully booked. Rwandair didn’t have a flight from Kigali to Mombasa until Sunday. My long weekend, occasioned by Eid, seemed destined for the dustbin.

The only thing that was certain, was that chances of getting a flight to anywhere in Kenya that day, were nil.

Later in the evening, Kenya Airways called to tell me that the flight would be on the next morning, and that I should be at the airport at 9:00. “Please, let it be true this time!”, I thought.

When I arrived there, the queue for the ordinary check-ins was already massive. Some times, it is just incredibly sweet to have one of those frequent flyer Gold cards that allow you to jump in front!

At around 10:30, the KQ country manager came to apologize for the delays, informing everybody that aircraft had started boarding – in Nairobi!!

No confirmation of when it would take off, though. Another 5+ hours of waiting, in other words!

Of course, they wouldn’t let people check in until the aircraft was in the air, because the moment the passports would have been stamped by the Immigration dept, there would be no way back for passengers in the event of another flight cancellation. Hence, we were still standing in front of the check-in counter until further notice. The relative comfort of the lounge on the other side was near, yet so far.

Some time around 11:30, the check-in finally opened. As one of the first passengers to be served, I secured a seat completely in front, as getting off a fully booked aircraft on arrival can be a hassle and a half.

The new Air France lounge at the Lagos airport is quite comfortable indeed. The food selection is relatively limited, but the Moet Chandon that they serve with their pains au chocolat can compensate for that anytime! ;)

Knowing Kenya Airways, I never board until my name is called, or the lounge staff reminds me that I am the last passenger. Even the ordinary final call means “please come and queue for 10-15 minutes”. After some rather uneventful hours at the lounge, I finally emptied my last glass of champagne at around 17:30, and headed for the flight.

Makeshift Immingration tent at JKIA

Makeshift Immingration tent at JKIA

Surprisingly, arriving in Nairobi was a breeze. The airport was crowded with more aircrafts than I had ever seen there before. Obviously, they were working like crazy to clear the heavy backlog of passengers.

Almost equally numerous were the large tents surrounding the terminal building. Obviously, President Kenyatta’s government had moved quickly to restore “normal” operations.

What really surprised me, was the speed with which things moved at the makeshift immigration desks. Within 5 minutes, I was through, and had already collected my luggage from the Domestic Arrivals unit, through which passengers were being routed.  In fact, I can’t recall having gone through the arrival procedures at JKIA that fast ever before!

After the ridiculously incompetent initial response by Kenya Airports Authority, and the shocking lack of disaster preparedness, at least President Uhuru Kenyatta’s government seems to have delivered an adequate crisis management.

JKIA Unit 4 to be fasttracked

JKIA Unit 4 to be fasttracked

In the aftermath of the fire, the Preisdent has already announced that work in progress on the upcoming Unit 4, as well as the upgrading of the three old units will be accelerated. The VIP Pavillion, previously used for visiting heads of state, has also been converted into a terminal, while a temporary terminal building with a capacity of 2.5 million passengers will be built as an emergency measure.

The construction of JKIA Terminal 2 (also referred to as the “Greenfield terminal” by the media), with a 20 million passenger capacity, is also due to commence in November.

What seems clear, though, is that the current management of JKIA and of the Kenya Airports Authority should be sacked forthwith. JKIA’s position as one the major aviation hubs in Africa, can only be maintained in the long run if the airport is seen to be competently and reliably managed. Currently, that is not the case.

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Lagos – Life in an African mega-city

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Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria

Lagos is, by far, the biggest city in Sub-saharan Africa. With its 10+ million inhabitants, it eclipses Johannesburg, Nairobi and Addis Ababa, and is second only to Cairo on the African continent. It is one of the fastest-growing cities on the planet, and increasingly a magnet for investors, multi-national companies and expatriates seeking to tap into the booming Nigerian and West African markets.

The city is also a by-word for chaos. Love it or hate it, but if you can’t take it, don’t try it! Whether you are here as a visitor or as an expatriate, brace yourself for the vibrant chaos that is the hallmark of Lagos!

Lagos is notorious for jams and crazy traffic. Being used to Nairobi, I don’t find it that bad in comparison, though.  People actually drive in a far more orderly way here than in the Kenyan capital, and jams, albeit bad during rush hours, are at the very least moving most of the time. Apparently the investments that Governor Babatunde Fashola has made in infrastructure, have paid off, as I understand that the situation was far worse a couple of years ago.

Power is still erratic to the point where one can hardly live without a generator. The ongoing reforms in the power sector, however, are likely to change that: The national power holding company, PHCN (an acronym widely believed to signify Please Hold Candle Now) is in the process of being split up and sold off as 18 independent production and distribution companies. Until the effects of that reform materialize, though, those all too familiar 5 seconds of darkness before the lights return, accompanied by the roaring sound of generators in the background, will continue to be part of everyday life in Lagos.

According to locals, the security situation has improved significantly compared to a couple of years ago, when gangsters would even enter the airport area to stop planes on the runway, and rob the passengers on board.  VI and Ikoyi are generally known to be quite safe for Nigerians these days, but still risky for expatriates, as criminals have abandoned muggings for the far more lucrative business of kidnappings.

For the same security reasons, road trips, a weekend activity that I cherish, are considered borderline suicidal for foreigners. A discussion about road trips beyond Badagry or Ibadan is likely to  include a question about whether or not I am mad.

The massive police presence in Victoria Island may give a false sense of security to the inexperienced first-timer. Don’t be fooled, though: Nigerian police may in theory be there to protect you, but would most likely run away while defecating in their uniform trousers, should a dangerous situation occur. Their real role is limited to begging for small handouts (or bigger ones, should you fail to notice a red light while driving).

Lagos is one of the most expensive cities in Africa. Not as bad as Luanda, but close. Assuming that you are decently well paid (most expatriates in Lagos are), then life can nevertheless be pretty sweet. Lagos has decent selection of restaurants, bars, clubs, cinemas, gyms and spas, but again, be prepared to pay for it!

A meal in a good restaurant (just one meal, no drinks) is typically $25 and above, and a beer $4. Fair enough for London or Geneva, but high for Africa. While you can get quite good sushi in Lagos, that dinner will easily set you back with $100. A night at the Radisson will cost the visitor about $400, and other hotels of comparable quality are around $400-$500. DO not expect to find anything of decent quality for less than $250.

When it comes to shopping, Lagos is still far behind most other African cities I’ve been to.  The Palms Mall in Lekki, one of the sanctums of shopping for affluent lagosians, hardly even compares to most local supermarkets in Nairobi suburbs. Lusaka a city of 2M people, has at least 4 malls that are bigger and better than Palms. Even Libreville in Gabon has a better one! Judging from the ongoing construction and investment boom, it is probably only a matter of time before Lagos catches up with the rest of the continent in that area, though.

Home electronics and mobile phones are widely available at decent prices, though. The growing middle class has a strong craving for those goods, and in a country of 170 million people, they constitute an increasingly attractive market.  Expect to see the the latest iPhones, tablets and Smart TVs in the supermarkets shortly after they become available internationally, and at good prices. If you are a Blackberry fan, and you know the right people in the telecoms business, expect to see test versions of the latest Blackberries circulating months before they are released.

If the idea of buying luxury goods in Lagos ever crossed your mind, then perish the  thought.  You will find many shops selling fake luxury products from brands like Gucci, Dolce & Gabbana, Salvatore Ferragamo, etc, at the same prices as the real stuff. Ermenegildo Zegna recently opened a store in Victoria Island, where one can safely assume that they sell the real stuff, however at grossly inflated prices even for Zegna. There is also a Hugo Boss store at the Palms Mall, with an incredibly disappointing selection.

The rising middle class, and the sheer size of Nigeria, makes the country an increasingly attractive market for international businesses. Lagos, being the the business hub of Nigeria and of West Africa, attracts the lion’s share of those investments, and is the natural location for any regional HQ.

With its 10 million inhabitants, Lagos State has a GDP the same size as Kenya’s (40M inhabitants). Because of its strategic position, Lagos is also a focal point of massive wealth concentration. Most of that wealth is gathered in the roughly 5km² comprising Victoria Island, Ikoyi and Lekki. In Banana Island, the upmarket section of Ikoyi, you will not find a 3-bedroom apartment for less than USD 10,000 monthly. As most landlords require 2 years upfront payment, living there is the preserve of the very rich, and of the senior-level expatriates of big multi-nationals.

The investment boom in Lagos is quite visible everywhere. Across VI, Lekki and Ikoyi, highrise office buildings, apartments and hotels are popping up literally everywhere. The grand real-estate project above all, though, is Eko Atlantic City. The vision for this mega-project, is a Dubai-style extension of Victoria Island, on 7km² of land which is currently being reclaimed from the sea. If built according to the plans, Eko Atlantic City will change the face of Lagos, Nigeria, and Africa as a whole.

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